Let’s begin today’s session with ‘Adjective-Degree’.
Adjective-degree or degrees of Adjective is the part of adjectives.
Before starting this topic, recall what is Adjective?
An Adjective is the word which qualifies or describes a noun or pronoun.
In other words, adjectives tell more about noun or pronoun.
- They are brave persons.
- You are a mature person.
- Ritika is a tall girl.
In the above examples, underlined words are adjectives as they perform work of describing words.
Read more about Adjectives and its types
Now let’s start our today’s topic Adjective-Degree‘.
Adjectives can be used to compare Nouns or Pronouns in respect of their numbers, qualities and quantities. Comparison can be made in three different ways. They are as follows-
What are adjectives degrees?
Adjective has its three degrees-
- Positive degree
- Comparative degree
- Superlative degree
What is positive degree?
Positive degree: We use positive degree to describe anything. It is a term that relates to adjectives or adverbs that do not make a comparison is said to be in Positive degree.
Eg- Hard, small, pretty etc
Now look at examples of positive degree in few sentences:-
- It is a hard copy.
- I have a small copy.
- I have a pretty doll.
What is comparative degree?
Comparative degree: We use comparative degree to compare two things. It is used to show a property or characteristic of a noun or pronoun in comparison to other noun or pronoun.
Eg- Harder, smaller, prettier etc.
Note– Words are like ‘to‘ and ‘than‘ are used after a comparative degree in a sentence to show comparison of two things.
Now look at examples of comparative degree in few sentences:-
- This question is harder than that.
- You have a smaller copy than me.
- My doll is prettier than hers.
What is superlative degree?
Superlative degree: We use superlative degree to compare more than two things. It is used to show a property or characteristic of a noun or pronoun in a comparison to many other nouns or pronouns. It expresses highest quality or quantity of a thing in comparison to many other things.
Eg- Hardest, smallest, prettiest etc.
Note– You must use determiner ‘The‘ before supplying superlative degree.
Now look at examples of superlative degree in few sentences:-
- This question is the hardest.
- He has the smallest copy.
- My doll is the prettiest.
What is Irregular comparison of degree. (Read more)
How do you make degrees of adjectives.
Formation of comparative degree and superlative degree.
I hope you have understood well about adjectives- degrees. Now it’s time to learn about how to form adjectives degrees.
1- You can form comparative degree by adding syllable ‘er‘ in positive degree and form superlative degree by adding a syllable ‘est‘ in positive degree.
2- If as the last letter of positive degree, you are getting ‘y‘ so while forming comparative degree replace ‘y’ with ‘i’ and then add a syllable ‘er‘ and while forming superlative degree, after replacing ‘y’ with ‘i‘ add a syllable ‘est‘.
Which adjectives are used as positive degree. (Read full article)
3- If in the last of positive degree, you are getting ‘e’ then while forming comparative degree ‘r’ will be added and for superlative degree ‘st‘ will be added.
4- If you are getting single syllabic adjectives, ending with a consonant preceded by a short vowel, add ‘er‘ in comparative degree and ‘est‘ in superlative degree after doubling the last consonant.
5- Most adjectives of two syllables or more than two syllables form their comparative degree by adding ‘more‘ and form their superlative degree by adding ‘most‘.
What is Irregular comparison of degree.
Irregular comparison of degree: In irregular comparison of degree, we change entire word in forming comparative degree as well as superlative degree.
There are 12 words (adjectives) derived from Latin language. Out of these, 5 adjectives are used as positive degree and 7 adjectives are used as comparative degree.
Which adjectives are used as positive degree
There are five adjectives used as positive degree. These are as follows-
Which adjectives are used as comparative degree
There are seven adjectives used as comparative degree.These are as follows-
With the above seven words, we use ‘to‘ instead of ‘than‘ in comparative degree.
Eg- He is superior to them.
Points to remember:–
● Double comparative are not used in a sentence.
Eg- This work is more easier than that.
In the above example you are getting two comparative degrees ‘more‘ and ‘easier‘ so this sentence is incorrect. So, instead of using ‘more‘ you should use ‘far‘ and the meaning will remain same.
This work is far easier than that.✓
Now, the above sentence is correct.
● The word ‘Perfect‘ has no degree of comparison.
Eg- Aditi is more perfect than Aditya.
Aditya is not as perfect as Aditi.✓
●Determiner ‘The‘ is omitted when the possessive precedes an adjective in superlative degree.
Eg- They have given their best.
(In the above example, ‘best‘ is a superlative degree and before this ‘their‘ shows possession so, before ‘best‘ you will not apply determiner ‘the‘.)
●When a superlative degree is used to show highest degree of quality and does not aim at comparison then determiner ‘the‘ is omitted.
Eg- It is most suitable work.✓
(in the above example, before superlative degree i.e. most, determiner ‘the‘ must be omitted as ‘most‘ shows highest quality of degree.)
Transformation of degrees of comparison
In transformation of degrees of comparison, you change the degree of adjectives without changing it’s actual meaning.
As you know there are three degrees i.e-
Positive degree, comparative degree and superlative degree so, one can change sentence of positive degree into comparative degree or sentence of comparative degree can be changed into superlative degree. Likewise, you can change any degree of adjective into other degree.
Eg- 1- Very few countries in the world are as good in technology as Japan. (Positive degree)
Japan is better in technology than many other countries in the world. (Comparative degree)
Japan is one of the best countries in technology in the world. (Superlative degree)
2- No other boy in the class is as brilliant as John. (Positive degree)
John is more brilliant than any other boy in the class. (Comparative degree)
John is the most brilliant boy in the class. (Superlative degree)
3- Very few bollywood actors are as respectful as Amitabh Bacchchan. (Positive degree)
Amitabh Bacchchan is more respectful than many other bollywood actors. (Comparative degree)
Amitabh Bacchchan is one of the most respectful bollywood actors. (Superlative degree)
This ‘adjective-degree’ is one of the essential topics of English Language. You may get questions from this topic in several competitive examinations too. So, learn better to become successful 👍🤗